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Historical Timeline



Classical Liberalism Historical Timeline: Thinkers, Works, And Movements
1632-Present




Classical Liberalism boasts a long and sustaining evolution. This timeline seeks to outline its major thinkers, works, and movements. For additional information on any of these works, one may refer to our overview essayor explore our Classical Liberal links page.

Obviously, no timeline can guarantee full enclosure of all the writers and works in such a rich intellectual tradition. The recent revival of classical liberal scholarship makes the task even more difficult. We have sought to be very thorough, however. Still, if one finds any glaring omissions, please contact the Institute .

Year Thinkers Works Movements
1632 John Locke (1632-1704)
1689 Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)
Letter Concerning Toleration (Locke, 1689)
A. R. J. Turgot (1727-1781)
1690 Two Treatises of Civil Government (Locke, 1690)
1694 Voltaire (1694-1778)
1695 Vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity (Locke, 1695)
1711 David Hume (1711-1776)
1714 Fable of the Bees (Mandeville, 1714) Scottish Enlightenment (1714-1817)
1717 Persian Letters (Montesquieu, 1717) French Enlightenment (1717-1778)
1720 Cato's Letters (Trenchard and Gordon, 1720-1723)
1723 Adam Smith (1723-1790)
1727 Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794)
1734 Philosophical Letters (Voltaire, 1734)
1737 Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
1743 Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
1748 Spirit of the Laws, (Montesquieu, 1748)
1751 James Madison (1751-1836)
1754 History of England (Hume, 1754-1761)
1756 William Godwin (1756-1836)
1759 Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) Candide (Voltaire, 1759) French Physiocrats (1759-1776)
Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith, 1759)
Elogy (Turgot, 1759)
Tableau Economique (Quesnay, 1759)
Philosophical Dictionary (Voltaire, 1764)
1766 Anne Louise Germaine de Stael (1766-1817)
Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Riches (Turgot, 1766)
1767 Jean Baptiste Say (1767-1830)
Benjamin Constant (1767-1830)
Wilhelm Humboldt (1767-1855)
1772 David Ricardo (1772-1823)
1773 Essay on the History of Civil Society (A. Ferguson, 1773)
1776 The Wealth of Nations (Smith, 1776) American Democratic-Republicans (1776-1816)
Common Sense (Paine, 1776)
Declaration of Independence (Jefferson, 1776)
1777 American Crisis (Paine, 1777)
1782 Felicite Robert de Lamennais (1782-1854)
1788 Federalist Papers (1788)
1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789)
1792 Rights of Man (Paine, 1792)
Vindicationof the Rights of Women (Wollstonecraft, 1792)
On Property (Madison, 1792)
1794 History of Human Progress (Condorcet, 1794)
1798 Political Justice (Godwin, 1798)
1801 Frederic Bastiat (1801-50)
1803 Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) A Treatise on Political Economy (Say, 1803)
1804 Richard Cobden (1804-1865) High Price of Bullion (Ricardo, 1804)
1805 Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859)
1806 John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
1808 Lysander Spooner (1808-1887)
1815 Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) Principles of Politics (Constant, (1815)
1817 Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (Ricardo, 1817)
Catechism of Political Economy (Say, 1817)
1818 Consideration on the Principal Events of the French Revolution (de Stael, 1818)
1820 Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
Heart of Political Constitution (Constant, 1820)
1830 Complete Course of Political Economy (Say, 1830) Manchester School (1830-1859)
1834 Lord Acton (1834-1902)
1835 Words of a Believer (Lamennais, 1835) American Transcendentalism (1835-1882)
Democracy in America (Tocqueville, 1835)
England, Ireland and America (Cobden, 1835)
Essay on Slavery (Channing, 1835)
1836 Russia (Cobden, 1836)
1840 Carl Menger (1840-1921)
William Graham Sumner (1840-1910)
1841 Self-Reliance (Emerson, 1841)
1843 Proper Sphere of Government (Spencer, 1843)
1848 Principles of Political Economy (Mill, 1848)
Declaration of Sentiments (Santon, 1848)
1849 The Law (Bastiat, 1849)
Civil Disobedience (Thoreau, 1849)
1850 Social Statics (Spencer, 1850)
1851 Eugen von Boehm-Bawerk (1851-1914) Limits of State Action (Humboldt, 1851)
1854 Benjamin Tucker (1854-1939)
1857 Progress: Its Law and Cause (Spencer, 1857)
1859 On Liberty (Mill, 1859)
1861 Considerations on Representative Government (Mill, 1861)
1863 Utilitarianism (Mill, 1863)
1869 On the Subjugation of Women (Mill, 1869)
1870 Albert Jay Nock (1870-1945)
1871 Principles of Economics (Menger, 1871) Austrian School of Economics (1871-present)
1880 H.L. Mencken (1880-1956)
1881 Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973)
Friedrich von Weiser (1851-1926)
1883 What Social Classes Owe to Each Other (Sumner, 1883)
1884 The Man Versus The State (Spencer, 1884)
Origin of Economic Value (Weiser, 1884)
1886 Isabel Paterson (1886-1961)
1887 Rose Wilder Lane (1887-1968)
1889 Capital and Interest (Bohm-Bawerk, 1889)
1899 Friedrich Hayek (1899-1992)
1893 The Principles of Ethics (Spencer, 1893)
1905 Ayn Rand (1905-1982)
1912 Milton Friedman (1912-) The Theory of Money and Credit (Mises, 1912)
1919 James Buchanan (1919- ) Nation, State, and Economy (Mises, 1919)
1922 Gordon Tullock (1922- ) Socialism (Mises, 1922)
1926 Murray Rothbard (1926-1995)
1927 Liberalism (Mises, 1927) Chicago School (1927-present)
1929 Monetary Theory of the Trade Cycle (Hayek, 1929)
1930 Israel Kirzner (1930- )
1935 Our Enemy, The State (A.J. Nock, 1935)
1938 Robert Nozick (1938- )
1941 Pure Theory of Capital (Hayek, 1941)
1943 Richard Epstein (1943- ) The Fountainhead (Rand, 1943) Objectivism (1943-1976)
Charles Murray (1943- )
The Discovery of Freedom (Lane, 1943)
God of the Machine (Patterson, 1943)
1944 The Road to Serfdom (Hayek, 1944)
Omnipotent Government (Mises, 1944)
1946 Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal (Rand, 1946)
Economics in One Lesson (Hazlitt, 1946)
1949 Human Action (Mises, 1949)
1952 The Counter-Revolution of Science (Hayek, 1952)
1957 Atlas Shrugged (Rand, 1957)
1959 Public Choice School (1959-present)
1960 Constitution of Liberty (Hayek, 1960)
1962 Calculus of Consent (Buchanan & Tullock, 1962)
Man, Economy, and State (Rothbard, 1962)
Capitalism and Freedom (M. Friedman, 1962)
1964 The Virtue of Selfishness (Rand, 1964)
1970 Power and Market (Rothbard, 1970)
1971 Libertarianism (J. Hospers, 1971)
1973 For a New Liberty (Rothbard, 1973)
Machinery of Freedom (D. Friedman, 1973)
Law, Legislation, and Liberty (Hayek, 1973-79)
1974 Anarchy, State, and Utopia (Nozick, 1974)
1975 The Limits of Liberty (Buchanan, 1975)
1977 Capitalism, Expectations, and the Market Process (Lachmann, 1977)
1979 Free to Choose (M. Friedman, 1979)
1980 Perception, Opportunity, and Profit (Kirzner, 1980)
1982 The Ethics of Liberty (Rothbard, 1982)
1984 Takings (Epstein, 1984)
1988 The Fatal Conceit (Hayek, 1988)
The Libertarian Idea (Narveson, 1988)
1993 The Nature of Rationality (Nozick, 1993)
1997 What it Means to be a Libertarian (Murray, 1997)
Libertarianism (Boaz, 1997)


This timeline was created by Amy H. Sturgis and Larry M. Hall. © The LockeSmith Institute, 1994; updated 1997. All rights reserved.



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